Jamb 2020/2021 syllabus in Government

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 Jamb 2020/2021 syllabus in Government


The aim of the Unified Tertiary Matriculation Examination (UTME) syllabus in Government is to prepare the candidates for the Board’s examination.  It is designed to test their achievement of the objectives of the course in Government. 
These objectives are to: 
i. appreciate the meaning of government; ii. analyse the framework and specify the institutions of government; iii. explain the concept of citizenship and define the duties and obligations of a citizen; iv. appreciate the process of political development; 
v. evaluate the political development and problems of governance in Nigeria; vi. assess the role of Nigeria as  a member of the international community and the workings of international organizations. 
 
1. 
2. 
 
3. 
 
4.  
Basic concepts in government 
a. Power, Right, Legitimacy, 
Authority, Sovereignty: 
b. Society, State, Nation, Nation-State; 
c. Political Processes 
Political Socialization, Political Participation, Political Culture. 
 
Forms of Government: 
Monarchy, Aristocracy, Oligarchy, Autocracy, Republic, Democracy- definitions, features, merits and demerits. 
 
Arms of Government: 
a. The Legislature – types, structure, functions, powers; 
b. The Executive – types and functions, powers; 
c. The Judiciary – functions, powers, components. 
Structures of Governance: 
Unitary, Federal, Confederal-features, reasons for adoption, merits and demerits.  
Candidates should be able to: 
i. identify the fundamental concepts in governance; 
ii. analyse various political processes; 
 
 
 
 
Candidates should be able to: 
i. distinguish between different forms of government. 
 
 
 
Candidates should be able to: 
i. identify the duties and obligations of 
the various arms of government and their agencies; 
ii. relate each arm to its functions. 
 
 
 
Candidates should be able to: 
i. compare the various political structures of governance. 

 
5. Systems of Governance: Presidential, Parliamentary and Monarchical. 
 
6. Political Ideologies: 
Communalism, Feudalism, Capitalism, 
Socialism, Fascism, Communism 
 
 
7. Constitution 
Written, Unwritten, Rigid and Flexible. 
 
8. Principles of Democratic Government: Ethics and Accountability in Public 
Office, Separation of Power/Checks and Balances, Individual and Collective Responsibility, Constitutionalism, Rule of Law. 
 
9. Processes of Legislation: 
Legislative Enactment – acts, edicts, delegated legislation, decrees. 
 
10. Citizenship: 
i. Meaning, types 
ii. Citizenship rights; 
iii. Duties and obligations of 
citizens. 
 
11. The Electoral Process: 
Franchise, Election, Electoral System, Electoral Commission. 
 
12. Party Systems: 
i. Definition, function and types ii. Political parties – Definition, Organization, functions. 
 
13. Pressure Groups: 
Definition, types, functions and modes of operation. 
 
 
14. Public Opinion: 
Meaning, functions and measurement. 
  
 
 
15. The Civil Service: 
Definition, characteristics, functions, structure, control and problems. 
   
Candidates should be able to: 
i. distinguish between the different systems of governance. 
 
Candidates should be able to: 
i. differentiate between the major 
political ideologies; 
ii. contrast modes of production, 
 
Candidates should be able to: 
i. compare the nature of constitutions 
 
Candidates should be able to: 
i. identify the principles of democratic government; ii. determine the application of these 
principles; 
 
Candidates should be able to: 
i. analyse the processes involved in the making of laws. 
 
Candidates should be able to: 
i. differentiate between the various types of citizenship; 
ii. specify the rights and responsibilities of a citizen. 
 
Candidates should be able to: 
i. analyse the various electoral processes. 
 
 
Candidates should be able to: 
i. distinguish between types of party system; 
ii. assess the role of political parties 
 
 
Candidates should be able to: 
i. distinguish between pressure groups 
and political parties 
 
 
Candidates should be able to: 
i. assess the function of public opinion; ii. compare methods of assessing public opinion. 
 
 
Candidates should be able to: 
i. analyse the significance of civil service in governance. 
 

 
 
   
 
PART  II POLITICAL 
DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA 
 
1. Pre – colonial Polities: 
Sarauta, Emirate, Tiv, Igbo, Yoruba – structure/system of governance 
 
2. Imperialist Penetration: 
a. The British process of acquisition – trade, missionary activities, company rule, crown colony, protectorate; 
b. The British colonial administrative policy – direct and indirect rule; 
c. Impact of British colonial rule- 
economic, political, socio-cultural; 
d. Comparison of British and French colonial administration. 
 
3. Process of Decolonization 
a. Nationalist Movements – meaning, emergence, goals, strategies, nationalist leaders – Herbert Macaulay, Nnamdi Azikiwe, Obafemi Awolowo, Ahmadu Bello and others; emergence of nationalist parties. 
b. Influence of External factors; 
c. Constitutional development – the Clifford (1922), Richards (1946), Macpherson (1951), Lyttelton (1954) and Independence (1960) 
Constitutions. 
4. Post – Independence Constitutions 
1963, 1979, 1989 and 1999 – 
characteristics and shortcomings 
 
5. Institutions of Government in the Post – Independence period; 
The Legislature, the Executive and the Judiciary – structure, functions and workings 
6. Public Commissions Established by the 1979 and Subsequent Constitutions: 
The Civil Service Commission, the Public 
Complaints Commission, Electoral Commissions and others – objectives and functions. 
   
 
 
 
 
Candidates should be able to: 
i. compare pre-colonial systems of governance 
 
Candidates should be able to: 
i. trace the processes of imperialist 
penetration; 
ii. assess the impact of British policies; iii. distinguish between British and French colonial practices. 
 
 
 
 
 
Candidates should be able to: 
i. evaluate the process of decolonization; 
ii. assess the roles of nationalist leaders and parties; 
iii. assess the impact of external forces and ideas (Pan-Africanism, Back–to–Africa 
Movements, etc), iv. compare the various constitutional developments. 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Candidates should be able to: 
i. assess the workings of the various 
constitutions. 
 
 
Candidates should be able to: 
i. evaluate the operations of the arms of government and their agencies, e.g the civil service, armed forces, police, courts and others. 
 
Candidates should be able to: 
i. evaluate the operations of public commissioners; 
ii. assess the problems of, and constraints on  
iii. the public commissions.  

 
 
7. Political Parties in the Post-
Independence Period: 
Political parties, party politics – First, Second, Third and Fourth Republics. 
  
8. The Structure and Workings of 
Nigerian Federalism: 
a. Rationale for a Federal System  
b. Tiers of government and their 
relationship 
c. Creation of States – 1963, 1967, 
1976, 1987, 1991, 1996; 
d. Problems of Nigerian Federalism – census, revenue allocation, conflicts etc. solutions e.g. Federal character, etc. 
 
9. Public Corporations and Parastatals 
a. Definition, types, purpose and 
functions 
b. Finance, control and problems; 
c. Deregulation, privatization – objectives, features, merits and demerits; 
d. Comparison between public corporations and parastatals. 
 
10. Local Government: 
a. Local government administration 
prior to 1976; 
b. Features of local government reforms (1976, 1989) – structure, functions, finance and inter-governmental relations; 
c. Traditional rulers and local governments. 
 
11. The Military in Nigerian Politics 
a. factors that led to military 
intervention; 
b. structure of military regimes; 
c. impact of military rule – political, e.g creation etc. economic, e.g SAP, etc. 
d. processes of military disengagement. 
 
 
 
 
 
 
   
 
Candidates should be able to: 
i. contrast political process in the 
republics. 
 
 
 
Candidates should be able to: 
i. examine the workings of Nigerian federalism; 
ii. identify its problems; iii. evaluate the corrective measure adopted. 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Candidates should be able to: 
i. examine the operations of public corporations and parastatals; 
ii. identify the processes involved in 
privatization and commercialization; 
iii. assess the economic importance of privatization and commercialization. 
 
 
 
Candidates should be able to: 
i. trace the evolution and structure of local government; 
ii. identify the major problems faced by local governments. 
 
 
 
 
 
Candidates should be able to: 
i. evaluate the reasons given for military intervention; 
ii. asses the achievements of military rule; iii. determine the conditions that necessitated withdrawal from governance. 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
  PART III:  NIGERIA AND THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY 
1. Foreign Policy: 
a. Definition, purpose, determining  
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
  2. 
3. 
1. factors; 
b. Nigerian foreign policy; 
i. Relations with major powers; ii. Relations with developing 
countries. 
 
Relations with African Countries: 
a. Africa as “centre piece” – guiding principles, implementation and 
implications; 
b. NEPAD – origin, objectives and implications. 
 
Nigeria in International Organizations a. The United Nations; 
b. The Commonwealth; 
c. The Organization of African Unity; 
d. The African Union; 
e. The Economic Community of West 
African States (ECOWAS); 
f. The Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC).  
PART IV:  INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS: 
International Organizations: 
a. ECOWAS; 
b. OAU, AU; 
c. Commonwealth; 
d. UNO; 
e. OPEC; 
- Origin, objectives, structure, functions, achievements, problems and prospects of these organizations. 
  Candidates should be able to: 
i. identify the major objectives of 
Nigerian foreign policy; 
ii. analyse Nigeria’s aligned posture; 
 
 
 
 
Candidates should be able to: 
i. evaluate the role of Nigeria in continental affairs; 
ii. assess the role of NEPAD in developing Africa. 
 
 
Candidates should be able to: 
i. analyse the dynamics of Nigeria’s 
involvement in international organizations; ii. assess their contribution to the development of Nigeria. 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Candidates should be able to: 
i. identify international organizations; ii. assess the role of these organizations in world affairs. 
 
   
 
Adigwe, F (1985). Essentials of Government for West Africa, Ibadan:  University Press Plc. 
Anifowose, R and Enemuo, F. C (eds)(1999). Elements of Politics, Lagos;  Malthouse Press Limited. 
Appadorai, A. (1978). The Substance of Politics, London:  Oxford University Press. 
Ball, A. R. (1983). Modern Politics and Government, London:  macmillan. 
Ikein, A. A. (1990). The Impact of Oil on a Developing Country, The Case of Nigeria, Ibadan; Evans. 
Ofoegbu, R.  (1977).  Government for the Certificate Year, London: George Allen and Unwin. 
Ojiako, J. O. (1981). Nigeria Yesterday, Today and _______ ?  Onitsha: Africana Educational Publishers (Nig.) Ltd. 
Olawale, J. B (1987). New Topics on Ordinary Level Government, Ilesha:  Jola Publishing. 
Omolewa, M.  (1991). A Certificate History of Nigeria, Ibadan:  Longman. 
Oyediran, O. Nwosu, H., Takaya, B., Anifowoshe, R., Femi, B., Godwill, O. and Adigun, A. 
(1990). Government for Senior Secondary Schools, Books 1, 2 and 3, Ibadan:  Longman. 
Oyeneye, I., Onyenwenu, M. and Olusunde, B. E. (2000). Round-Up Government for Senior Secondary School Certifcate Examination:  A complete Guide, Ibadan:  Longman. 
Oyovbaire, S., Oguna, A. E. C., Amucheazi, E. C., Coker, H. o. and Oshuntuyi, O. (2001). Countdown to Senior Secondary Certifcate Examination:  Government, Ibadan: Evans. 
 

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